Redundancy

That is what economic theory fixated on monetary profit removed from society. Planned obsolescence (failure by design) and “just in time delivery combined to set the stage for an ill-prepared health care industry when a new virus arrived. The initial whining about stressed hospitals resonated badly with people who had heard for decades that emergency rooms and hospitals needed to be closed.

If nasty surprises are to be avoided, redundancy is a sine qua non.